초록

[한글]요즘과 같은 다가치적인 문화와 문명을 넓게 교류하며 살아가는 사회에서 공간에 대한 인식이 더욱 중요하게 되었다. 그리하여 학생들의 지적발달에 맞게 실제적이고 구체적으로 공간인지 능력을 길러 줄 필요성이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 초등학교 사회과 지리영역을 동심원적 지역확대법 원칙에 따른 공간인지를 하고 있는지 인지도 및 공간인지 개념과 지도인지 개념 발달을 분석하여, 학생의 공간이해 정도를 제시하므로써, 초등사회과 교과서의 교육내용에 기초자료를 제공하고, 공간인지 확대를 위한 효과적인 교수-학습 방법 및 프로그램을 개발하는데 도움을 주고자 하였고, 다음과 같은 문제 제기를 하였다./첫째, 초등학생의 공간 認知圖를 통한 공간인지와 공간인지 유형은 어떠한가? /둘째, 초등학생의 학년별 공간인지 개념과 지도 개념 발달은 현행 교육과정에 따른 동심원적 지역확대법 원칙과 어떠한 차이가 나는가? /셋째, 초등학생의 공간인지 발달과 지도학습과는 어떠한 관계가 있는가?//본 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여 피아제의 이론을 샘플로 하였으며, 고양시의 초등학교 학생 3, 4, 5, 6학년 320명을 대상으로 인지도 및 인터뷰와 설문지 조사를 하였고, 자료처리는 SPSS 프로그램을 이용하여 빈도와 백분율,/χ2(Chi-square) 검증, t-test(검증), 그리고 One-way ANOVA(일원변량분석)을 실시하였다. / 연구내용으로는 첫째, 등교길과 지역지도의 인지도를 통하여 1) 학년별, 학년내 공간인지, 2)나들이 횟수별 공간인지, 3)성취도별 공간인지, 4)사회인구학적인 공간인지와 공간인지유형을 파악하고, 둘째, 학년별 공간인지 개념과 지도인지 개념 발달의 파악은 1)고장(시,군,구), 도, 우리 나라, 세계의 개념 인지와 2)

[영문]The cognition of space gains in importance in today''s society that is characterized by energetic, extensive crosscultural exchanges and a coexistence of multiple values, and it''s required to help students develop a cognitive ability of space in an authentic and concrete manner to suit their intellectual growth. The purpose of this study was to examine whether elementary schoolers recognized spaces in social studies geography according to the concentric expanding method principle and how much their concept of spatial cognition and map cognition developed. By identifying the extent of their spatial understanding, it''s meant to serve as a basis for formatting a better elementary social studies textbook and to help develop more successful teaching methods and programs that could contribute to enlarging their spatial cognition. For that purpose, the following research questions were posed:/First, what are the extent and type of spatial cognition among elementary school students?/Second, is their development of spatial cognition and map cognition based on the concentric expanding method principle in the current curriculum?/Third, what is the relationship between the development of spatial cognition and map learning?/To address the research questions, Piaget''s theory was taken into account. The subjects in this study were 320 students in their 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th year from an elementary school in the city of Goyang. A survey and interview were conducted, and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS program. The frequency and percentage were calculated, and x2(Chi-square) test, t-test and one-way ANOVA were employed./How much the elementary schoolers were aware of the way of going to school and of local map was analyzed by (1) grade, (2) outing frequency, (3) achievement and (4) demographic characteristics. And their spatial cognition type was investigated as well. Concerning the progress of spatial cognition and map cognition, their concept of town(city, county and district), province, our nation and the world was investigated, and then their cognitive development related to ''human and nature,'' ''locality'' and ''spatial relationship'' was examined. Regarding map learning, their cognitive development associated with ''human and nature,'' ''locality'' and ''spatial relationship'' was investigated, and what caused their spatial cognition was examined. /The brief findings of this study were as below:/First, when they drew the way of going to school, it''s found that they were aware of Type 2(T2: guide post or something like that) the most. From the local map, it''s shown that Type 1(T1: outlines) was recognized the best. And in the regional maps, our country was perceived the most./Second, the conceptual growth of spatial cognition and map cognition wasn''t based on the concentric expanding method principle. This fact called on curriculum to be revised./Third, map learning was thought to be useful in developing the concept of spatial cognition, but they were poorly aware of map learning. The largest group of the students learned how to recognize spaces in school, which showed that teaching-learning methods are crucial.//The above-mentioned findings suggest that there is a need to redress social studies curriculum to step up the development of spatial cognition among elementary schoolers. Besides, it''s urgently needed to prepare a variety of teaching-learning methods and programs that could improve map learning. One possible alternative is to extensively deal with what they can go through in person in everyday life, instead of relying on the concentric expanding method principle, because third and higher graders could know even what they don''t experience in person owing to transcendental qualities, as Piaget theory suggests. The curriculum should be organized more faithfully to fit each grade to step up their comprehensive spatial cognition. On the other hand, some students drew South Korea only when they were asked to draw our country, and we need to insert the South-North unification issue in social studies curriculum. The teaching- learning methods and lesson plans were mentioned in detail in appendix(see page 101). This study might be meaningful in suggesting some specific ways to offer a better social studies education./